It took four days of determined international diplomacy, spearheaded by Turkey and the UN, for Russia to rejoin a deal allowing for the export of Ukrainian grain to world markets.

Also known as the Black Sea grain initiative this was a deal to allow grain ships to depart safely from Ukrainian ports. It which was brokered by the UN and Turkey in July and which became operational on August 1.

Since then, an estimated 9.5 million tonnes of grain and other foodstuffs have been moved out of Ukraine under the deal. According to UN estimates, this “indirectly prevented some 100 million people from falling into extreme poverty”.

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