2021 is meant to be Libya’s transitional year. The new interim government faces huge tasks.
Subnational governance is at the heart of the ongoing conflict in Libya.
To resolve the conflict, the Biden administration will have to grasp the nettle of subnational governance reform and be prepared to work with the Houthis.
As the Libyan people see renewed prospects for peace, subnational governance may represent an integral part of a resolution to protracted instability.
Resolving subnational conflicts is ultimately about governance because their drivers are frequently linked to grievances and perceived injustice associated with access to power and resources, and to feelings of ethnic, social and / or geographic exclusion and marginalization.
Since the end of World War II, we have experienced a shift in conflict dynamics, from inter-state to intra-state conflicts. In 2016 alone, the world witnessed 47 intra-state conflicts. Today, wars are fought within state borders between a multiplicity of actors over the distribution of political power and national wealth both at and between the center and subnational governance levels. Marginalized groups are vying for greater autonomy at the local level, while those in control of the state—be they majorities or dominant minority groups—seek to consolidate political power at the center. Such intra-state conflicts with subnational dimensions are among the most protracted and violent conflicts.
In 2011 South Sudan became the 193rd United Nations member state. This was met by a great deal of local celebration and international praise. It marked the seemingly happy end of decades of a mostly violent struggle over the relationship between the north and the south of the country.
The president and his supporters may have defeated the coup â€“ but if anything, the events over the past days and weeks have exposed the deep rifts in Burundian society that to fix will take more than arms.
The terrorist group al-Shabaab has claimed an attack on Garissa University College in eastern Kenya, in which an unclear number have been killed and many others taken hostage.