Published in The Kurdish Policy Imperative (ed. by Robert Lowe and Gareth Stansfield, Chatham House/Brookings Institution, 2010), this chapter outlines a variety of dimensions that can help to specify the situation of particular non-state peoples. This situational mapping is important in determining appropriate arrangements for managing the relationships between states and non-state peoples. The Kurds in Iraq are located within each of these dimensions and the arrangements under the Iraqi constitution of 2005 for the Kurdish region’s self-governance and its sharing of power and wealth in Iraq are discussed. In conclusion, I offer some observations about the situation of the Kurds in Iraq under that constitution, indicate gaps in their constitutional relationship with the Iraqi state and suggest how these might be filled without disrupting the new institutional framework in Iraq.